This book provides more comprehensive materials and discussion on environmental impact of the offshore oil and gas industry than any other single source currently available. Specifically, multi-disciplinary perspectives are given, addressing worldwide advances in studies, control, and prevention of the industry's impact on the marine environment and its living resources. Unique to this text are the data on environmental aspects of Russian offshore oil and gas developments presented by the leading expert on the problem. The author considers the main impact factors of the offshore activity and outlines conditions providing the balance of interests for the oil industry and fisheries. Special attention is given to the ecotoxicological and biogeochemical characteristics of oil and gas hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Based on all presently available information, specific environmental requirements for discharges and seawater quality are substantiated. Final chap! ters summarize strategic principles of environmental protection and ecological monitoring in relation to the offshore oil and gas activity. Appendix includes Russian standards of Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) and Approximate Safe Impact Limits (ASIL) for about 200 chemicals used in oil and gas production. Over 700 references, 69 tables and 87 illustrations.